Stack Mode Measurements - 3 electrode mode

Value of Stack Mode Measurements

Some researchers want to be able to apply or measure voltages larger than 12 V. One example of the need for larger potentials is battery testing, while another might be CV inside small microfluidic channels. Perhaps you want to perform certain types of electrodeposition experiments. In these instances you may need to look a little Read more about Value of Stack Mode Measurements[…]

High-current Pulses for Battery Research

Introduction For those interested in determining the characteristics of batteries, especially by discharging them to see their changes in impedance, Gamry Instruments offers the Reference™ 3000 potentiostat plus our 30k Booster. This combination of instruments is useful for running stress tests on batteries, by applying rapid, high-current pulses singly or repeatedly. As a cell, we Read more about High-current Pulses for Battery Research[…]

What makes the Interface 5000 Unique?

The Gamry Interface 5000 is the latest potentiostat from Gamry Instruments.  This full-featured potentiostat/galvanostat is ideally designed for testing batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. What makes this potentiostat so unique? A Dual Electrometer.  A second electrometer provides the ability to monitor both half cells in a typical three-electrode setup.  With this feature, you can monitor both the anode and Read more about What makes the Interface 5000 Unique?[…]

Electrochemical Cells

Can We Talk, Batteries?


Batteries are indispensable energy storage systems for mobile and stationary applications. They are mostly used for portable devices or when electrical lines are impractical or impossible.

Their application fields reach from smaller devices such as MP3 players or smartphones up to high power systems for the […]

By utilizing the strengths of the two companies, a ‘one-stop’ product has been developed.

Gamry Instruments and Bitrode’s New Partnership

A new partnership between Bitrode and Gamry was announced today.  The collaboration in the development of battery test By utilizing the strengths of the two companies, a ‘one-stop’ product has been shows the strength of the two companies.  A ‘One Stop‘ product has been created by integrating Gamry’s EIS […]

Gamry Hosted Webinar: EIS and Its Application to Battery Analysis

Gamry is pleased to once again be presenting a webinar sponsored by PlugVolt. This year’s webinar entitled: “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Its Application to Battery Analysis” will be presented by Chris Beasley of Gamry Instruments. When: Wednesday February 17, 2016 What Time: 10:00 a.m. EDT USA / 4:00 p.m. CET Europe / 10:00 p.m. China Read more about Gamry Hosted Webinar: EIS and Its Application to Battery Analysis[…]

Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries

A solid, printable electrolyte enables lithium-ion batteries to take many shapes Engineers dreaming up new pacemakers, watches, or whatever wearable gadgets come after Google Glass have to tailor their designs around existing battery shapes—typically cylinders, pouches, or rectangles. But a team of researchers hopes their fully printable, flexible lithium-ion batteries will one day free designers Read more about Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries[…]

Electrochemicakl measurements on lithium ion batteries

Testing Lithium Ion Batteries

Purpose of This Note:

This application note discusses electrochemical measurements on lithium ion batteries. Theory and general setup of lithium ion batteries are explained. Important parameters for characterizing batteries are described.

In addition, various experiments on coin cells are performed. They show how to gain information about a battery’s performance, e.g. capacity and voltage limits as well as long time behavior.


4-terminal Kelvin type connector battery holders for eis

4 Terminal Measurements for EIS of Batteries-Coin Cell & Cylindrical

Purpose of This Note
This application note discusses the differences between 2‑point and 4‑point measurements of batteries.  These two typical setups are compared with Gamry’s battery holders for CR2032 coin cells and cylindrical 18650 batteries.  Both holders allow direct‑contact Kelvin sensing.

EIS measurements are performed with two types of lithium‑ion batteries and different experimental setups.  In addition, shorted lead measurements show the low‑impedance limits of Gamry’s 18650 and CR2032 battery holders.

It is crucial to know the exact specifications when testing batteries or any other energy storage device.  Many parameters affect the capability of a battery, e.g. electrolyte, electrode materials, and temperature.

Batteries have to pass different tests to check their capacity, voltage window, current rating, internal impedance, leakage current, cycle life, operational temperature range, as well as several impact tests.

In order to get correct, reliable, and reproducible results, researchers have to rely on their experimental setup.  Wrong setups can heavily affect and falsify measurement results leading to inaccurate conclusions.

The following sections show by means of EIS experiments the influence of the setup on the actual result.  Common battery setups are compared with Gamry’s direct‑contact 4‑terminal battery holders.  Shorted lead measurements with dummy cells show the lower limits of Gamry’s battery holders.

Dual Cell CR2032 and 18650 Battery Holder
Figure 1 shows typical options to connect cylindrical batteries and coin cells.  Some batteries can be purchased with soldered tabs on each electrode.  They allow connecting alligator clips for measurements.  If no tabs are available, simple battery holders with two contacts are often used.

Battery connectors for cylindrical batteries

Figure 1 – Selection of battery connectors for cylindrical batteries and coin cells.


Potentiostats for Battery Research Testing

Potentiostats for Battery Research Testing

Take two different metals, place an ion transporting medium between them, wire them up to be connected outside the electrolyte solution (perhaps to a voltmeter or potentiostat) and you’ve made a battery. With the ever-increasing demand for portable power, batteries are becoming more and more important. As demands on battery performance increase, so do demands Read more about Potentiostats for Battery Research Testing[…]

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