Article now available at Springer by A. Robert Hillman Abstract In its simplest manifestation, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is a relatively new device for executing a classical technique, electrogravimetry. The advantages it brought were in situ applicability (notwithstanding prior misconceptions regarding damping by a contacting fluid), exceptional sensitivity and dynamic capability, thereby Read more about The EQCM: electrogravimetry with a light touch[…]
October 7, 2014 By Nanalyze
The world is addicted to crude oil. Every day we consume around 90 million barrels or 3.8 billion gallons of crude oil, 84% of which is used for energy production. The other 16% is used as a raw material to create a multitude of other chemical products such as pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. But the need for crude oil as a feedstock may begin diminishing over time as disruptive technologies begin to mature. Companies are developing alternatives to using crude to manufacture chemicals, companies such as Genomatica, which has delivered synthetic organisms that represent the industry’s first commercial bio-based process for producing a high-volume intermediate chemical without the need for crude. This process called GENO BDO produced 5 million pounds of Butanediol (BDO) in 2012 (about 100 truckloads sold and shipped) and has now been licensed by the world’s #1 producer of BDO, BASF. Another company looking to create an intermediate chemical using environmentally friendly feedstock instead of crude oil is Liquid Light.
About Liquid Light
Founded in 2009, New Jersey based Liquid Light has taken in $23.5 million in funding so far from the likes of VantagePoint Capital Partners, BP Ventures, Chrysalix Energy Venture Capital, and Osage University Partners. Liquid Light first unveiled their electrochemical production method for making chemicals in March of this year which is based on technology licensed from Princeton University. The event was highlighted in an MIT Technology Review article titled “A Cheaper Route to Making Chemicals from CO2“ which contained the following statement:
Liquid Light’s electrochemical production method for chemicals would be an appealing substitute for current petroleum-based methods, particularly for chemicals with oxygen in them, says Gary Dirks, a former BP executive and a scientific advisor to Liquid Light. “You get products that are not easy to get from oil-based hydrocarbons in a much simpler process and at lower cost,” he says.
The production method is “lower cost” because it uses waste carbon dioxide as a feedstock instead of more expensive current feedstocks used such as natural gas, crude oil, or corn.
Gamry will be holding a Workshop at the ECS Meeting in Cancun, Mexico. If you do EIS on very low impedance or very high impedance samples then you should attend Gamry’s workshop at the ECS meeting tomorrow. This workshop will cover precautions needed for analyzing very low impedance samples such as batteries and fuel cells as Read more about Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Difficult Samples[…]
Purpose of This Note
This application note discusses the differences between 2‑point and 4‑point measurements of batteries. These two typical setups are compared with Gamry’s battery holders for CR2032 coin cells and cylindrical 18650 batteries. Both holders allow direct‑contact Kelvin sensing.
EIS measurements are performed with two types of lithium‑ion batteries and different experimental setups. In addition, shorted lead measurements show the low‑impedance limits of Gamry’s 18650 and CR2032 battery holders.
It is crucial to know the exact specifications when testing batteries or any other energy storage device. Many parameters affect the capability of a battery, e.g. electrolyte, electrode materials, and temperature.
Batteries have to pass different tests to check their capacity, voltage window, current rating, internal impedance, leakage current, cycle life, operational temperature range, as well as several impact tests.
In order to get correct, reliable, and reproducible results, researchers have to rely on their experimental setup. Wrong setups can heavily affect and falsify measurement results leading to inaccurate conclusions.
The following sections show by means of EIS experiments the influence of the setup on the actual result. Common battery setups are compared with Gamry’s direct‑contact 4‑terminal battery holders. Shorted lead measurements with dummy cells show the lower limits of Gamry’s battery holders.
Dual Cell CR2032 and 18650 Battery Holder
Figure 1 shows typical options to connect cylindrical batteries and coin cells. Some batteries can be purchased with soldered tabs on each electrode. They allow connecting alligator clips for measurements. If no tabs are available, simple battery holders with two contacts are often used.
Gamry Instruments is pleased to announce the publication of a manuscript highlighting the capabilities of the Gamry eQCM 10M. The project entitled “Application of the combined electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and probe beam deflection technique in deep eutectic solvents” uses the EQCM/PBD method for the first time applying to metal deposition/dissolution processes in deep eutectic Read more about Combined EQCM and Probe Beam Deflection in Deep Eutectic Solvents[…]
Gamry Instruments will be an exhibitor at The European Corrosion Congress in Pisa, Italy Gamry Instruments is proud to be an exhibitor at EUROCORR 2014, the annual event of the European Federation of Corrosion Philadelphia, PA Gamry Instruments, designer and manufacturer of electrochemical instruments, will be an exhibitor at EUROCORR 2014– September 8-12, 2014 in Read more about Gamry Instruments to Exhibit at Eurocorr 2014[…]
Gamry Instruments will be an exhibitor at The International Society of Electrochemistry Meeting in Lausanne, Switzerland Gamry Instruments is proud to be an exhibitor at the 65th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry entitled Ubiquitous Electrochemistry Philadelphia, PA, Aug. 20, 2014 Gamry Instruments, designer and manufacturer of electrochemical instruments, will be an exhibitor Read more about Gamry Instruments to Attend 65th Annual ISE Meeting[…]
The 65th Annual ISE Meeting August 31 – September 5, 2014 Lausanne, Switzerland The meeting will be held in the Swiss Tech Convention Center (STCC) on the campus of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), which includes other architectural landmarks such as the Rolex Learning Center. Electrochemistry involves chemical phenomena associated with charge separation Read more about International Society of Electrochemistry Annual Meeting[…]
Detects Diseases, Measures Biomarkers, Costs $25 In advanced industrialized nations most diagnostic tests that check body fluids for markers of disease make use of specialized sensors and devices that, although they deliver accurate results, can be very expensive. Now researchers at Harvard University have unveiled a new portable device that can perform a slew of Read more about Handheld Electrochemical Sensor[…]
This Application Note is intended to provide the reader with a general framework for characterization of an electroactive polymer film. Electropolymerization is a convenient way to control film growth either through repeated cycling, potential steps, or current steps. Examination of the film redox behavior in monomer-free, fresh electrolyte provides insight on doping and dedoping of these polymer films.
Polybithiophene films were assembled by cycling an Au-coated 10 MHz quartz crystal between 0 and 1.5 V in the presence of 1 mM bithiophene solution containing 100 mM tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) in acetonitrile (MeCN). Potentials are reported against a Ag/Ag+ pseudo-reference electrode. The Teflon® cell was outfitted with a Teflon o-ring to prevent swelling from the acetonitrile and placed inside a VistaShield™. The cell was connected to an eQCM 10M™ which was coupled to a Reference 600™. Both instruments were connected to a computer running Resonator™ version 5.67. Bithiophene, electropolymerizes via a two-electron oxidation at potentials greater than ~1.25 V versus a Ag/Ag+ pseudo reference electrode.
Figure 1 shows two cycles of film growth. Cycle 1 (blue curve) shows only background (non-Faradaic) current until the potential is greater than 1.25 V. Cycle 2 shows additional Faradaic current beginning at approximately 0.75 V due to oxidation of the polymer film. Polymerization still happens at potentials greater than 1.25 V. The small spike at 1.1 V is related to an irreversible film rearrangement since subsequent cycles (seen when thicker films were prepared) show no current spike.
The Battery Show’ is being held September 16-18 2014 in Novi, Detroit Michigan. This will be the premier showcase of all the latest advanced battery technology and is an ideal venue for tech leaders, scientists, engineers, project leaders, buyers and executives concerned with advanced energy storage. The latest advanced battery solutions for electric & hybrid Read more about The Battery Show Conference & Expo for Advanced Batteries[…]
Care of Porous Glass Frits
Porous Glass is often used at the end of a reference electrode or a bridge tube to allow electrical, ionic conductivity between the bulk of the solution and the internal filling solution, while preventing large scale convective mixing of the solutions. Porous Glass, or “thirsty glass” is a porous glass with a fairly low leak rate.
The Porous Glass frits, however, are not immortal!
To preserve their useful lifetime, they should be kept wet. If they are allowed to dry out, solid crystals can clog the narrow pores and increase the electrical resistance. In extreme cases, the Porous Glass can crack upon drying out.
When not in use, the reference electrode or bridge tube can be stored with the Porous Glass frit immersed in distilled water. Diffusion through the Porous Glass is fairly slow, and the internal filling solution will not be diluted, even upon a few weeks of storage.
An alternative is to replace the small plastic cap that was in place when the reference electrode was shipped.